The Howl of the ‘Wolf Warriors’

Introduction

‘Wolf Warrior’ is a modernized term in the Chinese lexicon that has stirred and emboldened the Chinese people. The concept holds a powerful place in 2020’s society, signifying both China’s aggressive stance on the world stage and their rabid control of the global media narrative.

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) prepares and intensively trains special operations forces. Similarities exist between China’s Snow Wolf Commando Unit (SWCU) warriors previously led by Qu Liangfeng and the term ‘Wolf Warrior’, which may have been the inspiration for the film’s name. This elite force, known for its tenacity, was deployed on the most difficult missions including hostage rescues, counterterrorism, and dangerous situations.[1] Executing the most complex tasks, this elite fighting unit focuses on simulating the maneuvers of foreign countries, militaries, and mercenaries to defend China’s interests abroad. The bravery and honor exhibited by members of this exceptionally-trained PLA unit has sparked excitement in a generation of citizens and diplomats.

President Xi Jinping widely and unapologetically promotes nationalism, loyalty, and patriotism along with the Chinese Dream of becoming the world’s economic and military powerhouse. He encourages his citizens to rise to the challenge, achieve success, and combat dissent. In turn, he has poured resources into his Belt and Road Initiative, military enhancements, and technology infrastructure.

Sparked by respect and inspired by movies portraying Wolf Warrior heroism, China’s netizens have come to the foreground to do their part, spawning a new age of Internet celebrities. One Wolf Warrior artist, Wuheqilin, who portrayed an Australian soldier with a bloodied knife on an Afghan child, has more than a million followers.[2] Motivated by patriotism, the devoted masses have come to the rescue to combat media information sources or individuals who speak or write in a way that is contrary to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) message.

Wielding social media like a powerful sword, the Internet has gained prominence in its ‘fight for China’. During 2020, China’s Wolf Warriors rose to prominence, impacting foreign relations globally and promoting leaders such as Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesman, Zhao Lijian, to new heights.[3] According to Australia’s Peter Jennings, “China’s ambitions will make 2021 the year of the wolf warrior.”[4]

Wolf Warrior Propaganda

‘Wolf Warriors’ intentionally strike with widespread bombardments on news sites and social media that support China’s viewpoints with posts, articles, reports, and political statements. China’s domestic and international communication, diplomacy, cooperation, and transparency are championed by the CCP’s growing ‘Wolf Warrior’ movement.

Through widely promoted propaganda, Beijing reiterates its rallying cry to its people, demonstrating to the rest of the world that China is a rising force while cautioning governments to heed their warning to ‘tread carefully’. Beijing has warned the world not to speak negatively or there will be consequences. One of those warnings has been issued through its new weapon – a powerful, aggressive cyber-crusade.

The Century of Humiliation is over!

‘Wolf Warriors’ figuratively wave China’s flag proudly throughout its domestic, diplomatic, and global agenda. ‘Wolf Warrior’ diplomacy is aggressive and swift, using combative language that forcefully denounces any criticism of China. Since Twitter is banned in China, it is ironic that contentious tweets are one of the harshest weapons unsheathed.

This movement has been consistently molded and permanently chiseled into the minds of the Chinese people through their CCTV propaganda and devotion to nationalism. China’s remarkable economic rise has fueled this passionate stance. Moreover, the People’s Liberation Army’s military dominance is evident in marching across its territories and sailing across its regional seas to project China’s power after a century of war, theft, betrayal, destruction, shame, and loss. The concept of ‘Wolf Warrior’ diplomacy is a product of patriotism. To comprehend how the ‘Wolf Warrior’ impacts China’s relations with the rest of the world, it
is necessary to understand the brand of nationalism that forms the foundation for deploying these militant social media warriors.

‘Wolf Warrior’ Narrative in Wolf Warrior 2

            As a reflection of cultural pride and nationalism, the term ‘Wolf Warrior’ stems from the heroic 2017 Chinese film, Wolf Warrior 2, an action-packed patriotic drama. In order to promote Beijing’s ideals, China sought to expand its soft power globally by demonstrating its strength through visual media. Wolf Warrior 2 was credited with soft power success[5] when it became China’s highest grossing action film of all time.[6]

The Economist reviewed elemental scenes from the Chinese movie that have been assimilated into China’s actions and motives in recent foreign policy interactions. They note that the film’s protagonist, Leng Feng, portrays China as a fearless, dauntless, and indefatigable nation through Leng’s heroic actions.[7] Leng Feng is a veteran member of China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) special forces.[8] The cinematically portrayed mighty China is formidable as an unstoppable force the rest of the world dare not antagonize.

            The movie portrays a sudden coup of well-armed fighters mercilessly shooting defenseless everyday Africans and Chinese workers in town. After hundreds are murdered, Leng Feng whisks away two of his African friends to the Chinese embassy.

Later, after an attack by African mercenaries, a factory filled with both Chinese and African employees gathered. The Chinese factory owner called to his African friends, “Everyone here is my employee. I’m taking them all with me.” Leng Feng follows, displaying a spirit of Chinese-African unity, “Everyone here leaves together.”

Shortly afterward, the factory was surrounded in a brutal attack by African mercenaries led by the American antagonist. In another scene, African mercenaries burst into the factory compound heavily armed and powered by tanks. Leng Feng, armed with a homemade crossbow saves the day. Helped by the Chinese factory owner and the Chinese factory manager, they defend the employees who huddled in an underground shelter.

Nearby Chinese ships finally save the day. As American ships flee the African coast, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) head straight into the pandemic-stricken warzone. While the U.S. cowardly departs, China valiantly arrives at the battle zones to save the Chinese and African refugees.

In one climactic scene, Leng’s vengeful, American adversary looks at him disdainfully and says, “People like you will always be inferior to people like me.” Immediately, Leng Feng frees himself, pounces on him, and punches him to death. He denounces his American enemy rival as Chinese missiles wipe out another wave of oncoming mercenary tanks. Later, Leng enters the warzone and waves a Chinese flag high in the air as he leads throngs of people to safety. As the battle scene pacifies with Leng’s presence, astonished commanders shout, “Hold your fire! It’s the Chinese!”[9]

The Film’s Tagline:

“Though far away, anyone who affronts China will pay.”[10]

Thus, Leng triumphs, extinguishing the futile idea that Americans are more powerful than the Chinese. While emphasizing that Americans are evil and disgusting, the movie emblazons the vivid image that the Chinese are heroes. In a final comment, the movie caption says, “To the citizens of the People’s Republic of China: When you find yourself in danger in a foreign country, never give up hope. China’s strength will always support you.”

The story shows that China’s bravery is highly regarded by nations around the world who desperately need protection from the Americans. With Rambo-style heroics and Jackie Chan moves, the amiable Leng Feng overcomes any challenge. Moreover, China is depicted as impressively prepared and capable of overcoming any obstacle merely with its well-equipped manpower.

            Despite the integration of Wolf Warrior 2 into China’s modern philosophy, concerns have bubbled to the surface regarding China’s peaceful and magnanimous diplomacy. In attempting to spread goodwill around the world, the portrayal in this harsher characterization undermines this message. Thus, critics have questioned that thematic elements have been excluded from China’s benevolent international stance and quest to reclaim a central role in the world.[11] The ‘Wolf Warrior’ depiction of conquest is designed to amplify the confidence and pride of the Chinese people.

            However, The Economist also suggests that “the film is strikingly respectful of international law.” After Leng Feng shares cell phone video footage of the bloody battle scenes to the Chinese ship off the coast, China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) contact the United Nations for approval to launch a missile attack. A Chinese radio operator awaits the ambassador’s approval, announcing, “Sir we have received authorization from the United Nations!”[12] The movie presents China’s cooperation with other nations and reverence for the international community, although in actuality, Beijing’s provocations with other countries have amounted to contentious acts, aggressive tactics, and violations of international laws.[13]

Nevertheless, as explained by Chinese media outlet, Xinhua, Wolf Warrior 2 stimulates Chinese patriotism.[14] Proud and respectful Chinese citizens revere this movie, seeking to assimilate its tenets of leadership, authority, and power shown in this cinematically-depicted representation of China through ‘Wolf Warrior diplomacy’ and ‘Wolf Warriors’ in the media.

‘Wolf Warrior Diplomacy’

‘Wolf Warrior diplomacy’ refers to China’s rising assertiveness in conveying its diplomatic agenda, primarily being executed through Twitter posts. ‘Wolf Warrior diplomats’, as proponents and executors of China’s new boldness, emerged on the world stage in 2020 and have used fierce ‘Twitter fingers’[15] ever since. This army of ‘diplomats’ express their disapproval of disparaging comments toward China, through threats and condemnations reminding leaders and citizens of other nations that they should not interfere with China’s goals.[16]

The Hong Kong Free Press identifies three factors that have motivated China’s assertiveness: “Xi Jinping’s foreign policy ambitions; new incentives for assertiveness; and a generational shift at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (FOMA).”[17] When asked about ‘Wolf Warrior diplomacy’, Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi said that China’s diplomats “never pick a fight or bully others, but we have principles and guts.” He added, “We will push back against any deliberate insult to resolutely defend our national honour and dignity.”[18]

The coronavirus pandemic created challenges for China. As China attempted to cover up the virus and deflect blame to other countries, its ‘Wolf Warriors’ went en masse, confronting any individual or country who blamed China for inflicting the coronavirus on the world to boost its manufacturing force. China, feeling cornered, increased its Twitter presence, converting Twitter into “a weapon for ‘wolf warrior’ diplomats whose tweets are popularized by an army of bots.”[19]

These “principles and guts” are evident in tweets that Chinese diplomats have fervently and feverishly posted. In particular, young Chinese diplomats Zhao Lijian, Hua Chunying, and Zha Liyou have been notably recognized for their status updates online and demonstrating that China’s younger generation of diplomats will not be silenced.

In response to criticism on how China handled the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, on February 16, 2020, Zha Liyou, China’s consul-general, tweeted, “You speak in such a way that you look like part of the virus and you will be eradicated just like virus. Shame on you.”[20] In response to Twitter direct messages from The Economist, Zha wrote that his “sole purpose” was telling China’s “true story.”[21]

In May 2020, Zhao Lijian tweeted, “Pompeo said that he stands with the people of Hong Kong. He is flattering himself. In fact, he stands with the so-called Hong Kong independence forces and violent radicals. China is firmly opposed to foreign interference in China’s domestic affairs.”[22]

That one tweet was not the end of Zhao Lijian’s fiery Twitter rampage. On July 9, 2019, 22 nations, including the U.S., sent a message to the United Nations urging China to stop the “arbitrary detention and restrictions on freedom of movement of Uyghurs, and other Muslim and minority communities in Xinjiang.”[23] Shortly after, Zhao tweeted, “US & most of these 22 countries invaded Iraq on so-called credible evidence of chemical weapons, bombed Afghanistan, Libya, Syria … How can they claim to be champions of Muslims in China’s Xinjiang where the majority of the Muslims are living in peace & prosperity? Shameless hypocrites!”[24]

Following his previous tweet, Zhao added, “If you’re in Washington DC, you know the white never go to the SW area, because it’s an area for the black & Latin. There’s a saying ‘black in & white out’, which means that as long as a black family enters, white people will quit, & price of the apartment will fall sharply.”[25]

In response, former U.S. National Security Advisor, Susan Rice, tweeted, “You are a racist disgrace. And shockingly ignorant too. In normal times, you would be PNGed for this. Ambassador Cui, I expect better of you and your team. Please do the right thing and send him home.”[26] Rice abbreviated persona non grata, signifying an unwelcome diplomat, as “PNG” and urged the Chinese ambassador to the U.S., Cui Tiankai, to send Lijian home.

Firing back, Lijian tweeted, “You are such a disgrace, too. And shockingly ignorant, too. I am based in Islamabad. Truth hurts. I am simply telling the truth. I stayed in Washington DC 10 years ago. To label someone who speak the truth that you don’t want to hear a racist, is disgraceful & disgusting.”[27] All tweets were removed shortly after.[28]

Through all of the tweets that Chinese diplomats send, it has become abundantly clear that their goal is to chastise any opposition to China’s rising global power, especially the United States. Another notable ‘Wolf Warrior diplomat’, Lu Shaye, also took to the media, replying to the backlash regarding China’s response to COVID-19. He told French newspaper L’Opinion in April 2020, “Every time the Americans make an allegation, the French media always report them a day or two later. They howl with the wolves, to make a big fuss about lies and rumors about China.”[29]

The Foreign Ministry’s Communist Party secretary, Qi Yu, reaffirmed the purpose of ‘Wolf Warrior diplomats’, sharing in a December 2019 essay that they must “firmly counterattack against words and deeds in the international arena that assault the leadership of China’s Communist Party and our country’s socialist system.”[30]

Nevertheless, the backbone providing support for ‘Wolf Warrior diplomats’ actions is President Xi Jinping’s push for China’s nationalistic agenda and strong presence on the world stage.[31] Replying to a Twitter direct message from The Economist, the Chinese ambassador to Austria, Li Xiaosi, shared that President Xi Jinping directly requested for “Chinese diplomats to tell China’s stories well and present a true, multidimensional and panoramic view of China.”[32]

With information solely coming from Chinese diplomats’ Twitter accounts, a true “panoramic view of China” is questionable. It is essential to note that Twitter has been blocked for the Chinese people to use for a decade,[33] allowing the communist party to share one-sided messages to the rest of the world, without any other perspective.[34] China’s absolute censorship facilitates the spread of its well-constructed, coordinated propaganda.

‘Wolf Warriors’ in the Media

As Chinese leaders and representatives epitomize the ‘Wolf Warrior’ image, state media, journalists, and other writers have sought to establish access points to present truly “multidimensional” viewpoints. However, access cannot be obtained, given the stifling of voices through censorship. Media and news platforms are designed to spread China’s nationalistic messages through crafted propaganda. Regarding Twitter, access is only provided for diplomats,[35] yet many others in China look for Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and other digital routings to share perspectives and protect digital information. Naturally, not everyone in China is a diplomat and permitted to tweet. However, the potential for internet freedom has become a beacon of hope for journalists who seek to convey their brand of patriotism to the rest of the world.

The head of the Chinese Foreign Ministry’s information department, Hua Chunying, wrote in July 2019, “In order to win the right to speak, we must take the initiative and actively shape it.”[36] Chinese careerists seeking to get a leg up in the journalism world have taken it upon themselves to “actively shape” the media, trying to gain any noteworthy opportunities to condemn Western nations and silence anti-China rhetoric.

However, although the goal of nationalists is to spread Chinese ideologies to the rest of the world,[37] the primary obstacle is the Great Firewall,[38] the Chinese government’s digital fortress that censors and blocks posts, articles, and other news from being shared without permission.

Surprisingly, the Chinese people have not held their tongues in silence to the internet restrictions, as they have when faced with other government-imposed regulations in the past. In the spring of 2020, Hua tweeted, “I can’t breathe.” He attached a tweet by U.S. State Department spokesperson, Morgan Ortagus, criticizing China’s Hong Kong policies. Shortly afterward, millions of Chinese citizens flooded the news, saying, “I can’t tweet,” to let the world know that Twitter still remains blocked for the general populace.[39]

The only way to bypass the Great Firewall is through the use of a Virtual Private Network (VPN). However, the Chinese government outlawed the use of VPNs in 2018 and has said they will fine, arrest, and charge citizens for “accessing the international internet through illegal channels.”[40] Yet, millions of Chinese citizens protested the Chinese government’s arrest of a citizen who bypassed the Great Firewall in May 2020, an unprecedented movement against Beijing.[41]

In addition, many media and news personalities have vocalized their desire for internet freedom to spread nationalistic messages of their own. One example is Cao Kefan, a media personality at Shangai Media Group and a delegate of the National People’s Congress. Cao told reporters that he submitted a bill that would grant special permission to selected and trusted media workers to have access over the Great Firewall and “speak China’s voice” to the rest of the world.[42]

Cao hopes, “In the future, we can gradually expand these opportunities to even more people. We should encourage more influential people in different fields to represent themselves in international media, spread their ideas, and engage with others, showing the world China’s tolerance and openness.”[43] Cao and others alike seek to have independent access in the media to spread, share, and inform others on their perspective of China in the world and demonstrate their ardent loyalty to Xi Jinping’s ambitions in their profession.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic was a test of the strength of ‘Wolf Warrior diplomacy’. Nevertheless, Chinese ‘Wolf Warrior diplomats’ have pressed harder through the COVID-19 pandemic,[44] utilizing a concerted effort to spread information at the push of a few buttons. These determined forces of citizenry continue to convey China’s fearless, hardened, and aggressive position in the world with the global community, particularly in 2020, as they countered accusations that the COVID-19 disease emanated from China or that their PPE products were defective.

China pushed to create alternate narratives for the origin of the disease. Lijian Zhao offered the United States as a culprit in a Tweet. Then, China blamed Italy and Spain.[45] In December 2020, China blamed India, while maintaining a narrative that the Chinese were “efficient” and “vigilant” in combatting the disease.[46]

Additionally, opening the doors to social media platforms and news outlets is the only way for ordinary citizens to become a ‘Wolf Warrior’ of their own. Needless to say, with more users able to post, the number of outgoing attacks will skyrocket. As the Chinese people gain greater access to reach the rest of the world and spread China’s ideologies, new philosophies, beliefs, and principles will filter into the minds of its citizens. Social control and propaganda machines do not work as well when people have widespread access to information and transparency in the media. Though Beijing has yet to make any move toward granting citizens internet access, the new generation of ‘Wolf Warriors’ may lead to unpredictable changes – only time and tweeting will tell.

What’s at Stake?

First, tit-for-tat Twitter battles are likely to stay provided that the new rules of ‘diplomacy’ mean lashing out at one another with harsh, inflammatory words on the global stage. However, the ‘twitter finger’ dam broke and the water is surging downstream. There is no way to recapture that water. Thus, it is likely that Twitter battles, as petty and abhorrent as they can be, are here to stay.

Second, ‘Wolf Warriors’ are on the loose; they are howling loudly. Reporters must ask tough questions, be clear on the issues, and have a keen sense of being played by coercive rhetoric. What is at stake is a public that may be unaware of these propaganda tactics and unable to discern the truth from the lies.

Third, students of life should study philosophy and logic. Much of this deep thinking has been lost in the decimation of liberal arts departments. However, ‘Wolf Warriors’ use logic as striking points that are filled with fallacies. Many of these fallacies are heard in the media and important to note.

  1. Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum Ad Ignoratum) – stating that a proposition is true, since it has not been proven false. Example: Claiming that there is no torture, because the victim did not tell you.
  2. Argument by Force (Argumentum Ad Baculum) – carrying a stick to coerce a desired result. Example: You will denounce your citizenship or else your family will be murdered.
  3. Circular Reasoning (Petitio Principii) – the premises presume the conclusion. Example: China is the best country, because it is better than other countries.
  4. Guilt by Association (Argumentum Ad Hominem) – an argument stating that one person is corrupt because they are friends with a person who was found guilty. Example: Everyone who protests is violent, since some are violent.
  5. Bandwagon Appeal (Argumentum Ad Populum) – correctness is interpreted by following the crowd. Example: Every person should get the new Apple iPhone since the phone is so popular.

These are only a few of the many fallacies that can be used to shape people’s thinking. Others include red herrings, a slippery slope, and half-truths. More of these fallacies are being introduced through social media to lure people into following what may seem logical and true when, in fact, it is false, misleading, or deceptive.

Fourth, what is at stake is a world of people who are unaware that these communication tactics and means of manipulation are being used against them.


[1] Tang Yuankai, “Beijing’s Answer to Bond,” Beijing Review, January 17, 2008, http://www.bjreview.com.cn/print/txt/2008-01/13/content_95925.htm

[2] Ryan Woo, “‘Wolf Warrior’ Artist Turns New Chapter in Chinese Propaganda Artwork,” Reuters, December 2, 2020 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-china-image-artist/wolf-warrior-artist-turns-new-chapter-in-chinese-propaganda-artwork-idUSKBN28C1CR

[3] Bloomberg News, “Welcome to Wolf-Warrior Diplomacy,” Bloomberg, December 3, 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/newsletters/2020-12-04/welcome-to-wolf-warrior-diplomacy

[4] Peter Jennings, “China’s Ambitions Will Make 2021 the Year of the Wolf Warrior at the Door,” The Australian, December 23, 2020, https://www.theaustralian.com.au/commentary/chinas-ambitions-will-make-2021-the-year-of-the-wolf-warrior-at-the-door/news-story/7d5f2c498f81c2dbbe51e6867443575c

[5] Dongyao Nie, “Patriotic Films Win Soft Power for Chinese Government,” Pacific Council on International Policy, October 11, 2018, https://www.pacificcouncil.org/newsroom/patriotic-films-win-soft-power-chinese-government

[6] Viola Zhou, “Patriotic Action Movie Wolf Warrior 2 Tops China’s Box Office for 2017 but Foreign Films Gain Ground,” South China Morning Post, January 1, 2018, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/economy/article/2126366/chinas-box-office-hits-us86-billion-2017-boosted-service-fees

[7] The Economist, “China’s “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy Gamble,” The Economist, May 28, 2020,  https://www.economist.com/china/2020/05/28/chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomacy-gamble

[8] Evan Osnos, “Making China Great Again,” The New Yorker, January 1, 2018, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/01/08/making-china-great-again

[9] The Economist, “China’s “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy Gamble,” The Economist, May 28, 2020,  https://www.economist.com/china/2020/05/28/chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomacy-gamble

[10] Prabhash K. Dutta, “Wolf Warrior Diplomacy: The Chinese Game of Covid-19 Cover-Up,” India Today, December 3, 2020, https://www.indiatoday.in/news-analysis/story/wolf-warrior-diplomacy-the-chinese-game-of-covid-19-cover-up-1746283-2020-12-03

[11] Nick Schifrin and Katrina Yu, “How President Xi Jinping is Transforming China at Home and Abroad,” Pulitzer Center, September 27, 2019, https://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/how-president-xi-jinping-transforming-china-home-and-abroad

[12] The Economist, “China’s “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy Gamble,” The Economist, May 28, 2020,  https://www.economist.com/china/2020/05/28/chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomacy-gamble

[13] Steve Mollman & Heather Timmons, “China Has No Respect for International Law, Its Neighbors, or Marine Life, A Tribunal Rules,” Quartz, July 12, 2016, https://qz.com/729524/chinas-activities-in-the-south-china-sea-are-illegal-and-destroying-the-environment-an-international-court-finds/

[14] Xinhua, “China Focus: ‘Wolf Warrior 2’ Stimulates Country’s Patriotism,” Xinhua, August 15, 2017, http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2017-08/15/c_136528713.htm

[15] Desmond U. Patton, David Pyrooz, Scott Decker, William R. Frey, and Patrick Leonard, “When Twitter Fingers Turn to Trigger Fingers: A Qualitative Study of Social Media-Related Gang Violence,” International Journal of Bullying Prevention 1, (2019): 205-217, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42380-019-00014-w

[16] James Landale, “Coronavirus: China’s New Army of Tough-Talking Diplomats,” BBC News, May 13, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-52562549

[17] Dylan M.H. Loh, “Over Here, Overbearing: The Origins of China’s ‘Wolf Warrior’ Style Diplomacy,” Hong Kong Free Press, June 12, 2020, https://hongkongfp.com/2020/06/12/over-here-overbearing-the-origins-of-chinas-wolf-warrior-style-diplomacy/

[18] The Economist, “China’s “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy Gamble,” The Economist, May 28, 2020, https://www.economist.com/china/2020/05/28/chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomacy-gamble

[19] Prabhash K Dutta, “Wolf Warrior Diplomacy: The Chinese Game of Covid-10 Cover-Up,” India Today, December 3, 2020, https://www.indiatoday.in/news-analysis/story/wolf-warrior-diplomacy-the-chinese-game-of-covid-19-cover-up-1746283-2020-12-03

[20] The Economist, “China Finds a Use Abroad for Twitter, a Medium it Fears at Home,” The Economist, February 20, 2020, https://www.economist.com/china/2020/02/20/china-finds-a-use-abroad-for-twitter-a-medium-it-fears-at-home

[21] Ibid.

[22] Lijian Zhao (@zlj517), “Pompeo said that he stands with the people of Hong Kong. He is flattering himself. In fact, he stands with the so called Hong Kong independence forces and violent radicals. China is firmly…,” Twitter, May 29, 2020, 9:27PM, https://twitter.com/zlj517/status/1266586988380995585 

[23] Reuters, “Xinjiang Camps: UN Ambassadors Urge China to End Detention of Uygurs in Open Letter,” South China Morning Post, July 10, 2019, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3018075/xinjiang-camps-un-ambassadors-urge-china-end-detention-uygurs

[24] Laura Zhou, “Former US National Security Adviser Susan Rice Calls Chinese Diplomat Zhao Lijian ‘A Racist Disgrace’ After Twitter Tirade,” South China Morning Post, July 15, 2019, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3018676/susan-rice-calls-chinese-diplomat-zhao-lijian-racist-disgrace

[25] Ibid.

[26] Nayanima Basu, “Who’s More Racist? Former US NSA and Chinese Diplomat in Pakistan Fight on Twitter,” ThePrint, July 15, 2019, https://theprint.in/diplomacy/whos-more-racist-former-us-nsa-and-chinese-diplomat-in-pakistan-fight-on-twitter/263274/

[27] Demond Cureton, “Tempers Flare as Chinese Envoy Triggers Susan Rice on Twitter Over Race, Xinjiang Uighur Accusations,” Sputnik News, Updated September 7, 2019, https://sputniknews.com/world/201907151076253052- tempers-flare-as-chinese-envoy-triggers-susan-rice-on-twitter-over-race-xinjiang-uighur-accusations/

[28] The Economist, “China Finds a Use Abroad for Twitter, a Medium it Fears at Home,” The Economist, February 20, 2020, https://www.economist.com/china/2020/02/20/china-finds-a-use-abroad-for-twitter-a-medium-it-fears-at-home

[29] Chun Han Wong & Chao Deng, “China’s ‘Wolf Warrior’ Diplomats Are Ready to Fight,” The Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomats-are-ready-to-fight-11589896722

[30] Ibid.

[31] Zhiqun Zhu, “Interpreting China’s ‘Wolf-Warrior Diplomacy’,” The Diplomat, May 15, 2020, https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/interpreting-chinas-wolf-warrior-diplomacy/

[32] The Economist, “China Finds a Use Abroad for Twitter, a Medium it Fears at Home,” The Economist, February 20, 2020, https://www.economist.com/china/2020/02/20/china-finds-a-use-abroad-for-twitter-a-medium-it-fears-at-home

[33] Ibid.

[34] Jeff Kao, ProPublica, and Mia Shuang Li, “How China Built a Twitter Propaganda Machine Then Let It Loose on Coronavirus,” ProPublica, March 26, 2020, https://www.propublica.org/article/how-china-built-a-twitter-propaganda-machine-then-let-it-loose-on-coronavirus

[35] Gerry Shih, “Banned at Home, Twitter Becomes a New Tool for Chinese Diplomats Abroad,” The Washington Post, July 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/banned-at-home-twitter-becomes-a-new-tool-for-chinese-diplomats-abroad/2019/07/09/bc61e040-a21f-11e9-a767-d7ab84aef3e9_story.html

[36] The Paper, “Hua Chunying Wrote an Article in The Study Times: Occupy the Moral Commanding Heights and Enhance International Discourse Power,” The Paper, July 12, 2019, https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_ forward_3900567

[37] Brian Wong, “China’s Two-Pronged Diplomacy,” The Diplomat, September 12, 2020, https://thediplomat.com/2020/09/chinas-two-pronged-diplomacy/

[38] Douglas Heaven, “China’s Great Firewall and the War to Control the Internet,” NewScientist, March 12, 2019, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24132210-400-chinas-great-firewall-and-the-war-to-control-the-internet/

[39] Fergus Ryan, “China’s Online Warriors Want More Gates in the Firewall,” Foreign Policy, June 29, 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/29/china-great-firewall-wolf-warrior-nationalism/

[40] Gao Feng, “Fine for VPN Use Sparks Rare Backlash on Chinese Internet,” Radio Free Asia, May, 21, 2020, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/vpn-punishments-05212020103537.html

[41] Ibid.

[42] Fergus Ryan, “China’s Online Warriors Want More Gates in the Firewall,” Foreign Policy, June 29, 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/29/china-great-firewall-wolf-warrior-nationalism/

[43] Ibid.

[44] Anna Schecter, “China Launches New Twitter Accounts, 90,000 Tweets in COVID-19 Info War,” NBC News, May 20, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/china-launches-new-twitter-accounts-90-000-tweets-covid-19-n1207991

[45] Debbie White, “Blame Game: China Accuses Italy of Starting Covid Pandemic and Claims Its Own Study Proves It,” The U.S. Sun, November 19, 2020, https://www.the-sun.com/news/1824950/china-accuses-italy-starting-covid-pandemic-study-proves/

[46] Prabhash K Dutta, “Wolf Warrior Diplomacy: The Chinese Game of Covid-10 Cover-Up,” India Today, December 3, 2020, https://www.indiatoday.in/news-analysis/story/wolf-warrior-diplomacy-the-chinese-game-of-covid-19-cover-up-1746283-2020-12-03

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